For vegetarians who eat dairy products and eggs, a healthy diet is the same as for anyone else, but without meat or fish.
Healthy eating as a vegetarian
The Eatwell Guide shows the different types of food we should eat to have a healthy, balanced diet, and in what proportions.
You don’t need to achieve this balance with every meal, but try to get the balance right over a day, or even a week. Choose options low in fat, salt and sugar whenever you can.
Eat a variety of fruit and vegetables every day
Try to eat at least 5 80g portions of fresh, frozen, canned, dried or juiced fruit and vegetables a day. As well as vitamins and minerals, fruit and vegetables provide fibre, which can help digestion and prevents constipation.
Base meals on starchy carbohydrates
Starchy foods such as potatoes, bread, cereals, rice and pasta should make up just over a third of the food you eat. Where possible, choose wholegrain varieties. You should eat some starchy foods every day as part of a healthy, balanced diet. Starchy foods are a good source of energy and the main source of a range of nutrients in our diet. As well as starch, they contain fibre, calcium, iron and B vitamins.
Dairy or dairy alternatives are needed for calcium
Milk and dairy products, such as cheese and yoghurt, are good sources of protein, calcium and vitamins A and B12. This food group includes milk and dairy alternatives, such as fortified unsweetened soya, rice and oat drinks, which also contain calcium. To make healthier choices, go for lower fat milk and dairy foods. Also choose lower sugar options.
Eat beans, pulses, eggs and other sources of protein
Pulses include beans, peas and lentils. They’re a low-fat source of protein, fibre, vitamins and minerals, and count as a portion of vegetables. Nuts and seeds are also a source of protein and other nutrients. Pulses are particularly important for people who don’t get protein by eating meat, fish or dairy products. Other non-dairy sources of protein include eggs and meat alternatives, such as tofu, mycoprotein (such as Quorn), textured vegetable protein and tempeh. You need to eat a variety of different sources of protein to get the right mixture of amino acids, which are used to build and repair the body’s cells.
Choose unsaturated oils and spreads
Unsaturated fats, including vegetable, rapeseed, olive and sunflower oils, are healthier than saturated fats, such as butter, lard and ghee. But all types of fat are high in energy and should be eaten sparingly.
Limit foods high in fat, salt and sugar
Foods high in salt, fat and sugar, such as cream, chocolate, crisps, biscuits, pastries, ice cream, cakes and puddings, should be eaten less often and in small amounts. Foods in this group mainly provide energy in the form of fats and sugars, but may only provide a very small amount of other nutrients.
Getting nutrients from a vegetarian diet
It’s important to vary what you eat. Some nutrients are found in smaller amounts in vegetarian sources, or are less easily absorbed by the body than those in meat or fish. Contrary to popular belief, most vegetarians usually have enough protein and calcium (found in dairy products) in their diet.
But if you don’t plan your diet properly, you could miss out on essential nutrients. For example, vegetarians need to make sure they get enough iron and vitamin B12 in their diets.